Pages tagged with Blood Gases

Lassa fever disease occurs more often in the dry season, rather than in the rainy season. There have been reports of over 40 deaths in 12 states of Nigeria within the last one year alone.
The most important factor deciding a favourable outcome is early institution chemotherapy. General treatment includes the correction of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, maintenance of nutrition, good nursing care with special attention to the skin, bladder and bowels.
Early diagnosis is possible only if the clinical suspicion is strong. History of contact with tuberculous cases, evidence of military tuberculosis and the presence of choriodal tubercles should suggest the underlying cause.
About 25 to 30% of the total number of cases of meningitis seen in many hospitals in some developing countries (particularly in India) is presumed to be due to tuberculosis. Children suffer from this disease most, but all age groups can be affected.
Tubercle bacilli entering the blood stream are diffusely disseminated and results in military tuberculosis. This is more common in young children in whom it is seen as a complication of primary tuberculosis. Post-primary tuberculosis may also lead to hematogenous spread in some cases.
With successful regimen, the lesions become sterile and the vast majority head by fibrosis. Residual lesions may be seen in x-rays. Cavities close or may heal by epithelialisation and these persist as such for life. These are bacteriologically negative. This phenomenon is called “op...
The main drawbacks of the standard chemotherapy schedule are its long duration and the ineffectiveness of the standard drugs to destroy bacilli which are dormant. Rifampicin is effective against dormant bacilli which show mild spurts of activity even for short periods.
Adequate chemotherapy administered without interruption for the optimal duration is the cornerstone of success. The available drugs are classified into standard or fist line drugs and reserve or second line drugs based on their efficacy, cost, availability and toxicity. It is advisabl...
It is a useful method to detect lesions within the shortest possible time. Though tuberculosis produces characteristic lesions in X-ray, there is considerable overlap with other disorders, Skiagrams bring about the morphology of the lesions clearly. For specific diagnosis, x-ray abnor...
Tuberculosis should be suspected in all patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases, especially if associated with night sweats, fever, emaciation and hemoptysis. Other conditions which should be differentiated are bronchiectasis, lung abscess, cystic disease of the lung, chr...
Tuberculosis is one of the most widely prevalent chronic infectious diseases affecting mankind. Though the developed countries have brought down its prevalence and incidence, in developing countries, it is still a major cause of ill health and mortality.
A imaginary plane at the lower border of the manubrium sterni divides the mediastinum into superior mediastinum above and anterior, middle and posterior mediastinum below. Space-occupying lesions in the mediastinum are not uncommon. Due to their location, they produce characteristic c...
One of the commonest and less significantly morbid manifestations of Diaphragmatic pathologies is the Hiccup. This is a common reflex phenomenon resulting from sudden spasmodic involuntary contraction of the diaphragm with the glottis remaining closed. Another is the Diaphragmatic f...
The most common diseases of the diaphragm are: Paralysis of the diaphragm, eventration of the diaphragm and Diaphragmatic hernia. How significant are these diseases to Man's health?
The integrity of the chest wall and muscular action of the intercostals muscles and diaphragm are necessary to ensure proper ventilation. Though, minor deformities may not be functionally significant, gross bony deformities and muscular paralysis impair ventilation and give rise to re...
Though in the majority of cases, spontaneous pneumothorax is uncomplicated, serious complications may develop in some cases.
Presence of air in the Pleural cavity is known as Pneumothorax. Pneumothorax may be spontaneous, traumatic and iatrogenic (artificial). Another classification is to divide them into open, closed and valvular pneumothorax (tension pneumothorax).
Collection of pus in the pleural cavity is called empyema. Pus may be free in the pleural space or loculated.
Pleural effusion may rarely present as an emergency with respiratory embarrassment. In such cases, emergency measures are required to give relief-especially if the effusion is massive or bilateral. The fluid is aspirated by thoracocentesis done in the eighth or ninth intercostals spac...
If the fluid volume is small, only the costophrenic angles are obliterated. As the fluid accumulates further, it throws a triangular lateral opacity, obscuring the hemidiaphragm. Large pleural effusions shift the midline structure to the opposite side.
In this condition, fluid accumulates between the two layers of the Pleura. Normally pleura contains only a small amount of fluid. The pleural fluid remains in dynamic equilibrium with blood. Movements of the lung favour the movement of the fluid in and out of the pleural space. In mos...
Inflammation of the pleura is called pleurisy. In dry pleurisy, the pleural surfaces are inflamed without fluid in between them. In many cases, pleurisy is associated with effusion. Both dry pleurisy and pleural effusion may develop at different stages of the same disease process.
Cystic disease has to be suspected when a child presents with recurrent respiratory infections. Presence of other congenital abnormalities should strengthen this suspicion.
Management depends on the stage of the tumour on diagnosis, histological type and presence of complications. Treatment may consist of surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy.
Bronchogenic carcinoma should be considered in the diagnosis of all respiratory disorders. Malignancy can mimic virtually all common pulmonary diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, lung abscess, atelectasis, localized emphysema, pleural effusion etc.
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