“ENIAC” Acronym for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer. The first operational electronic digital computer in the U.S., developed by Army Ordnance to computer World War II ballistic firing tables.
A Brief Description of ENIAC
The ENIAC, weighing 30 tons, using 200 kilowatts of electric power and consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 relays, and hundreds of thousands of resistors, capacitors, and inductors was completed in 1945. In addition to ballistics, the ENIAC’s field of application included are following:
- Weather prediction: Or knowing as Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a given location. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia, and formally since the nineteenth century.
- Atomic-energy calculations: As we know it the atom is made up of neutrons, protons, and electrons, etc. More information here.
- Cosmic-ray studies: THE study of cosmic rays has been described as “unique in modern physics”. the e-Lab simulation here.
- Thermal ignition: Critical initial conditions for thermal ignition are calculated numerically for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. For an example here.
- The random-number studies: Random numbers can be quickly and easily generated by using the graphing calculator. Generating Random Integers in Lists: (good for statistical studies). Find more here.
- Wind-tunnel design: The models of aircraft (or actual aircraft) can be mounted in a wind tunnel so that flight conditions can be simulated and engineers can study how well a design will fly, and,-
- Others of scientific uses
The ENIAC soon became obsolete as the need arose for faster computing speeds ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) is the first digital electronic device that works as a computer. The device is completed by the United States Armed Forces in 1945 and announced to the public in 1946. At that time, the computer is intended to calculate the direction and distance of firing ballistic missiles in World War II.
The Three Concepts & Technologies
Triggers made ENIAC was the need for a tool to help facilitate a country when it was at war. Just like other innovations, the ENIAC was built based on the three concepts and technologies that are already available at the time those are below:
- Mechanical brain: The brain transforms the quantum wave patterns of consciousness into electrochemical neurotransmitters. This information is further translated in different parts of the brain holographically into what we call reality.
- Vacuum Tubes: A vacuum tube also called an electron tube is a sealed glass or metal-ceramic enclosure used in electronic circuitry to control the flow of electrons. More information here.
- Punch Cards: A punch card is a simple piece of paper stock that can hold data in the form of small punched holes, which are strategically positioned to be read by computers or machines. It is an early computer programming relic that was used before the many data storage advances relied upon today (perforated paper in a certain position that stores information).
Funds amounting to US$61.700 were prepared by the US Armed Forces to build the ENIAC. Since it was decided to be made on June 5, 1943, a month later the computer began to be made in secret. Project PX is the code name of the project of making the ENIAC. Professor John Mauchly, accompanied by J. Presper Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania headed the team of manufacture ENIAC. Other team members are Bob Shaw, Chuan Chu, Kite Sharpless, Arthur Burks, Harry Huskey, Jack Davis, and Iredell Eachus Jr. Until finally completed on February 14, 1946, and the total funds spent on this project was reached US$486.80,22.
As I describe at the beginning above that ENIAC which weighs 30 tons, using electric power of 200 kilowatts, consisting of 18,000 vacuum tubes, 1500 relays, as well as hundreds of thousands of electric devices. ENIAC also could be used to predict the weather, calculate the atomic energy, cosmic rays, temperature measurement, research random numbers, designing air ducts, and other scientific use. ENIAC which became the basis of today’s computers is also able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide, and can store up to as many as 20 data in a 10-digit decimal number. Counting devices are used also serve as storage units.
Computers that earned the nickname “Giant Brain” were able to count a thousand times faster than the electronic calculating machines available at that time.
On its journey, ENIAC quite complicated to be handled. For example, when there is damage to one of the airtight tubes mounted on the ENIAC, the technician must check throughout the 19 thousand pieces of tube to locate the tube is not working.
Finally, because of the need for calculating machines faster and more efficiently urgent, on October 2, 1955, ENIAC stopped to use. And then, at present, the four out of a total of a forty-part panel of ENIAC stored in the University of Pennsylvania.
ENIAC stands for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer”. It was a secret World War II military project carried out by John Mauchly, a 32-year-old professor at Penn’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering, and John Presper Eckert Jr., a 24-year-old genius inventor, and lab assistant. The challenge was to speed up the tedious mathematical calculations needed to produce artillery firing tables for the Army.
ENIAC was not completed until after the war but it performed until 1955 at Aberdeen, Md. ENIAC was enormous. It contained 18,000 vacuum tubes, linked by 500,000 soldered connections. It filled a 50-foot long basement room and weighed 30 tons. Today, a single microchip, no bigger than a fingernail, can do more than those 30 tons of hardware. Let’s read more here on the “ENIAC ON TRIAL”
Conclusions and The Data Credits
The following are some of the outlines or the conclusions drawn from the first creation and journey of the first Intelligent Machines in the world.
- ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator): The first generation of computers such as ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) created by Dr. John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert in 1946. The development of the most appreciated is the beginning of computer memory stores the data in, known as the concept of how to set the stored (stored program concept). The concept of reserved by John von Neumann also emphasized the use of binary numbers for all task processing and storage.
- Dr. Mauchly and Eckert also help the development of the computer EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) that reduces the use of vacuum tubes. The calculation also is better than the ENIAC. EDVAC uses the binary number system and the concept of how to set stored.
- Computer EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) introduced the use of mercury (mercury) in a tube for storing memory (data). This method is found to be more economic than the vacuum tube, but at that time it was considered too expensive. EDSAC was promoted by the University of Cambridge, England.
- In 1951 Dr. Mauchly and Eckert create UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Calculator) The first computer used for commercial data processing. Also, use a tube of mercury (mercury) to store data. UNIVAC I used by the United States Census Bureau population. After the triumph of ENIVAC I, many computers related to maintenance and commerce appears.
- The Excessive of ENIAC Computer
- A computer that appears first or the first generation of Computer.
- The Weakness of ENIAC Computer:
- Requires a spacious room
- Fast heat
- Data processing is very slow
- Small storage capacity
- Require large electric power